Cranial bone movement is divided into four basic motions: flexion, extension, external and internal rotation. The midline bones (Occoput, Frontal, Vomer, Sphenoid, Ethmoid) move into flexion and extension, Temporals, Maxillae, Malar, Zygoma) rotate internally and externally.

  A) Inspiration -flexion
    As inspiration takes place the cranium widens transversely, and shortens  anterior to posterior while the spheno-basilar joint arcs
           upward into a state of flexion.
       front   view             side  view

whole body

  B) Expiration -Extension 
 As cranial motion changes into expiration, the spheno-basilar arc moves into a state of extension . while the cranium narrows
          transversely and elongates sagittally.
           front  view               side view
 whole  body
This flexion-extension motion of the occiput and sphenoid bones provides the leverage needed to keep the cranial tent (reciprocal tension membranes: Falx cerebri, Falx cerebelli and Tentorium cerebelli) in balance and the cerebro-spinal fluid circulation.

During cranial respiratory motion, the twenty-two cranial bones function as a unit. Disturbances of cranial motion manifest themselves in the form of a restriction or membranous articular strain between bones These strains can have their origin in utero during of after birth A study
by Frymann on 1250 newborns observed 10% of the infants had severe visible trauma inflicted on the head either before or during labor Cranial examination of the remaining infants revealed membranous strains in 78%. It was concluded that nearly nine out of ten of all infants
were affected by cranial distortion while being carried or delivered.

Many of these infants were observed in the nursery to have problems with sucking, vomiting nervous tension, irregular sleeping patterns, and irregular vital signs (heart rate, respiration, etc) Evidence indicates and it is believed that there is a normal pulse rhythm to all living
cells. The energy is produced by the brain which then influences the base bones (occiput and sphenoid) primarily.

The occiput then controls temporal and parietal bone motion and the sphenoid bone controls the frontal and facial bone motion.



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